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Quantum Chromodynamics: Logical Errors

 Zbigniew A. Nowacki

 Lodz, Poland, January 1, 2017

Moje foto Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a part of quantum field theory and deals with the description of strong interactions between colored particles such as quarks, explaining them through the exchange of intermediate bosons called gluons. The bosons are to be virtual, i.e., they have an energy owing to the uncertainty principle and cease to exist after some time.

Suppose, for example, that we have two quarks X and Y that currently enjoy the red and green colors respectively. Then, according to QCD, the quark X emits towards Y a gluon with the colors red-antigreen (RG) and changes its color to green. The boson is next absorbed by Y which turns red.

The situation would be different, however, if the quark Y had a blue color. Then, again according to QCD, the quark X should emit a gluon with the colors red-antiblue (RB) and change its color to blue. In this connection the following basic question arises:

In what way does a quark receive information on the current color of other colored particles?

The question is important because in the absence of this information a quark is able   as it follows from elementary logic to do solely things that are neutral (maybe taking into account probabilities) with respect to colors different from the color of the quark. E.g.,  X can emit two virtual gluons GB and BG at the same time, and (in order not to violate the color conservation principle) their lifetime has to be identical. Or also X may emit with the same probability two pairs of gluons: {RG, RG} and {RB, RB}.

Browsing the works of QCD we find easily that their authors do not follow the rule, but they take as granted that quarks emit virtual gluons dependent on the color of adjacent particles. It implies that the specialists of QCD implicitly assume that the above information is being sent. (Perhaps they naively think that particles occurring in the same diagram 'see' each other.) In this connection the next question arises:

With what speed does a quark receive information on the current color of other quarks?

A glance at the works of QCD can again show easily that their authors do not take into account any delays, and so they implicitly assume that this information is transmitted immediately (or very quickly). At the same time they suppose, of course, that QCD like entire quantum field theory takes place in flat Minkowski space-time. However, the two assumptions together lead to a number of contradictions known from the literature. In particular, the transmission can have a zero time duration (i.e., events associated with different quarks can be simultaneous) only for certain observers, and it is difficult to assume that just researchers on Earth constantly occur in this role. Note also that each superluminal speed becomes infinite or negative for some observers. And if the above velocity did not exceed c, strong interaction would be propagated at speeds not exceeding c/2.

Color confinement

An important phenomenon studied by QCD is so-called color confinement meaning that quarks cannot leave hadrons such as proton or neutron, but great effort to prove this fact in an analytical way has not been successful. This, however, should come as no surprise, since one sees that QCD is incomplete (does not respond to the first question).

Quantum field theory 

Similar errors occur in the entire quantum field theory. For instance, it attempts to explain, wading through huge and actually insurmountable computational difficulties, electrostatic interaction through the exchange of virtual photons. Therefore, the following question again arises: 

In what way does an electron receive information on the existence and location of other electrically charged particles?

This question is justified because in the absence of this information an electron is able to do merely things independent of the distribution of electrically charged matter in space-time. For example, it can send virtual photons in all directions. But if it were, the sum of their energies would be infinite, and such energy cannot be hidden by using the uncertainty principle.

Nevertheless, it might be assumed that all directions and distances are not required because for example the least particle with electric charge is of non-zero size. Then the number of virtual photons will be countable (albeit still infinite). It will be therefore possible to assign decreasing energies to them in such a way that their sum is finite (e.g., the total energy of the particles being sent at a distance r does not exceed k/2r, where k is constant ). On the other hand, electrostatic interaction depends also on distance, but according to Coulomb's law it is proportional to 1/r2. As the latter series is divergent, a physical theory may have great difficulty with agreeing on these values.

We infer therefore that, to avoid infinities and preserve physical meaning, the sending of the above information is necessary, which implies a further question about the speed of the transmission and, just as in QCD, leads to inevitable paradoxes. It is worth noting that in order to function Nature obviously requires high-precision (albeit simple) and logically consistent algorithms describing the exchange of intermediate bosons. On the other hand, quantum field theory provides instead elliptical statements that have not been able to be supplemented in the literature owing to well-founded fear of falling into contradiction.

One of the aims of quantum field theory was to explain the eternal mystery: How can distant particles interact with each other? The answer was to be given by using virtual bosons. However, for the time being we have obtained a quasi-response that only moves the problem elsewhere. Indeed, to send suitable bosons, distant particles have to communicate with each other, and it is completely unknown how they do it. We see that prior to calculations one should always check whether they make sense, and diagrams cannot replace a good theory.


In science it is usually practiced that if someone finds and shows errors, they also provide an error-free solution. However, it is known that in my case all the rules of scientific procedure have long since been completely trampled on. That is why I can only say here that I have got a correct quantum chromodynamics (as well as entire quantum field theory).

My QCD does not lead to any contradiction because it uses the signal encapsulation principle (which, for this reason, is also gaining great theoretical importance). It is explained why strong interaction seems so different from gravity and electromagnetism (my theory contains also a great unification of interactions, and even more), and why hadronization occurs. All calculations are easy, natural and accurate. In particular, the proof of the existence of color confinement is concise and elegant (based only on prime principles).

During my professional career (before I became a scientist) I had been analyzing information flows in organizations, and I often found that they were completely unknown for users. All this is repeated in the case of physics. And like those people in enterprises, physicists urgently need help from a specialist (but the latter defend themselves against obtaining it).

I cannot submit my work to any journal because I would again receive a referee's report being a complete denial of 'peer-review'. It is also worth mentioning that the doctors suspected cancer in me. Admittedly, the alarm turned out to be false, but I certainly won't live forever and serve to help implement my theories.

Advice for students

Learning of difficult theories that cannot be true must be very stressful. Therefore, I advise students attending QCD classes to ask their lecturers the first question. However, you should be prepared for the eventuality that they will not understand what you mean. In this case, you will have to explain it to them calmly. And when they finally understand and answer like: "No one knows it", feel free to refer them to this page.

The root cause of errors

Albert Einstein tried to fix classical physics and indeed demonstrated a lot of ingenuity in this work. However, Einstein's misfortune consists in that he wanted to cure a fiction. If classical physics were true, the assumption of the Swiss scholar that 'nothing can travel faster than light' would be absolutely correct. Yet at the lowest level Nature behaves quantum mechanically, and after reading this text probably every professor of physics should admit that quantum reality cannot do without the transmission of superluminal signals (no experiment is even needed). In addition, we know now that the spacetime constructed by Minkowski (who, although he was not a professional scientist, had a strong influence on Einstein), in fact, does not exist. Due to those mistakes an improper physics has been being developed for 111 (at the moment) years on Earth.

Future of physics

It is to be expected that the new physics built on the ruins of the old one will be far better than the latter. Researchers will receive tools that are to current methods as the use of firearms to throwing stones. However, it is not known when this will happen because the 'hereditary' Godfather of physics fights with me by hook or by crook. This is possible, since physicists are in the vast majority blindly obedient to him. And as a last resort he has a reliable method: he arranges financial flows (the knowledge of this mechanism allows to explain seemingly strange events).

You may wonder why he does it, why he works to the detriment of his field. In my opinion he suffers from a complex. As a very young man, he once planned in detail his career in which he was to become a great scholar. This has not succeeded; although the chief of physicists has written many papers and has 'won' a number of awards (joining real explorers), he has not achieved anything significant in science. On the contrary, he has done more harm to physics than help.